There are a lot of weird and terrific fun facts about chocolate, it’s difficult to know which to include and which to omit due to space considerations.
To start with, the Mayans used cacao beans as money as they believed they were more valuable than gold dust. They controlled the production of beans in order that their money wouldn’t depreciate in value.
White chocolate is not strictly speaking chocolate. We’ve been labouring under a misapprehension for several years. Chocolate must contain cocoa solids, but white chocolate doesn’t have any inside. Instead, cocoa butter is used in the production of white chocolate.
Europeans are the biggest fans of chocolate, accounting for the consumption of nearly half of the chocolate that is produced globally.
Where was the biggest chocolate bar produced? From the UK; it was made by Thornton’s for its centenary.
Toblerone is so popular that when the amount of bars sold annually were to be put end to end, they would stretch to 62,000km. That is over the Earth’s circumference.
Chocolate contains theobromine which s a very powerful stimulant. If you consume a lot of it, it may prove fatal. However, you would have to eat around 22 pounds of the stuff in one sitting, which isn’t really possible. Theobromine poisoning causes seizures, heart failure, dehydration, and acute kidney damage.
Chocolate chip cookies, adored by many around the world, came into being because of an accident which occurred in 1930. Ruth Wakefield ran out of cooking chocolate, but undeterred she used bits of chocolate in her biscuit dough. The chocolate she used was Nestles, and she later sold her recipe to the firm in return for a life’s supply of chocolate.
A pound of chocolate comprises 400 cocoa beans and a cacao tree will create around 2,500 beans. These trees are delicate and cocoa farmers lose about 30 percent of the crop every year.
Ancient people fermented the pods of the cacao beans to make drinks other than chocolate.
These were served in a golden chalice.
Each November in Germany, people celebrate Saint Martin’s Day with sweets and cups of steaming cocoa.
When it comes to lawn maintenance, homeowners sometimes fall for myths surrounding them. Regardless of the availability of information from sites, magazines and even from firms specializing in lawn maintenance, people still cling to these myths that can negatively impact the quality of a yard. A number of these myths might be well-meaning but studies suggest that these can damage your lawn and observing these don’t provide any value.
What are these myths about lawn maintenance you should watch for?
Contrary to the belief held by some individuals, there are lots of varieties of grasses, each with its own set of requirements in regards to irrigation, mowing and upkeep. Taking into consideration these differences can allow you to take better care of your yard and help you pick the suitable equipment.
You may believe that shaving a considerable amount off the leaf blades of the grass will interpret to time savings and less effort. If you cut the grass too short, you might pay the price later on in the shape of stressed grass that won’t grow optimally.
Some property owners believe it is ideal to bag grass clippings after each mowing session. However, in doing this, you’re missing some of the advantages that leaving grass clippings on the lawn can offer. Leaving grass clippings on the lawn helps return vital nutrients into the soil as they decompose. If you decide to bag grass clippings, then set aside some of them for composting.
Concentrate your attention on the grass. Another common myth about lawn care is that you ought to concentrate your time and effort on the grass. Be certain it’s tested regularly to let you pick the best fertilizer.
As your yard becomes blanketed in snow, it is possible to take a rest from your typical lawn care tasks. But you should take advantage of the time by keeping your tools and gear. By way of example, you can have a look over your lawn mower and assess whether it needs sharper blades or missing components. Come spring time, you will be prepared to go back to your regular lawn maintenance tasks.
The weather appears to have taken a turn for the better over the past week or so with spring and summer finally on the horizon! It is now of the year we begin to pull our backyard furniture from storage, baffled by how it has managed to fall to ruin in just a year! Now that the sun is shining and temperatures are climbing, it is the perfect time to start considering upgrading our garden furniture.
However big or small your outdoor area is, it is inevitable that you will be looking for someplace to sit this summer. Benches are the perfect way to create a focal point in your garden, adding a particularly dramatic look when placed under a tree or facing your lovely flower bed. There are a range of different designs available, with amorous metalwork and traditional wooden structures all feasible choices.
Garden furniture isn’t commonly associated with being the most comfy chairs in the world, because of the need for durability, however there are many ways to style your garden bench in order to improve this. Outdoor cushions and blankets can help add to the aesthetics but also result in a more pleasant and relaxing experience altogether!
The development of waterproof textile designs has caused a wonderful gain in the amount of different styles and shapes available in the marketplace. It is common to adhere to safer options when accessorising pieces of furniture, with neutral and solid colours proving to be popular selections! In fact, it is a celebrated trend to try and incorporate a variety of different patterns and colours to create an eye-catching and alternative look. It is also a wonderful way to bring a little bit of your personality to the fore. Another valuable tip, if you are uncertain of what path to take, is to use a mixture of neutral and solid coloured cushions alongside a few patterned scatter cushions of your choice. This is a more conventional approach and will also make any chair/bench/swing seem like it is straight out of an interior design magazine.
Most garden pieces are built to last but with the British weather often proving unpredictable it may also be a wise move to invest in a tarpaulin cover, or something similar, to help protect your furniture during the harsher months of the year. This will eliminate the need to store your outdoor chairs, benches, tables etc. indoors during autumn and winter.
Spring has finally come, with the opportunity for outdoor parties and parties – it’s time to find a patio installer to expand your outdoor living space while enhancing your garden.
It is worth starting early… careful preparation will take some time as you will want to decide on designs and products. Great installers are often booked up in advance and will need to incorporate your new patio in their schedules.
If you’ve decided that a patio would be a welcome addition to your house, your toughest decision may be choosing the right contractor to deal with the project. While there are many options to pick from, it’s imperative that you select a contractor who offers the ideal combination of products, service, and quality. For instance, you want to make sure the patio installer you pick has a reputation for doing the job correctly. Other factors to consider when selecting a contractor include:
Products – inquire what materials are offered for a patio. A pro will offer concrete, brick, rock, and pavers. If you select pavers, make sure that your contractor buys them from a reputable manufacturer, as inferior pavers will fade and frequently are not as durable.
Warranties & Guarantees – Ask if the contractor guarantee their work, and if there are warranties on the products (usually pavers) discuss the specifics until you understand them and have the guarantee and warranty spelled out in writing.
Sites with Portfolios – Top pros have sites that help educate the general public about hardscaping issues like the pros and cons of different materials used for patios. The consummate professionals will as have portfolios for you to peruse to see their work and what different elements look like so that you can make an educated decision regarding your patio.
Professional Organizations & Profession Education – Look for a contractor who belongs to professional organizations such as New Jersey Landscape Contractors Association (NJLCA) that encourage professionalism, security, environmental protection, and education.
Local Knowledge – Many communities have particular codes and restrictions for patio additions-choose a contractor experienced in navigating these constraints and regulations to produce the type of terrace that meets your needs and wants.
When choosing a professional to lay your terrace, you should take a practical approach prior to making your decision. Ask straightforward questions and try to find some basic support. Here are some helpful hints on what you need to ask before your dream garden project begins:
Get some different quotes for your project, checking that they include all the products and services you’ll need. Ensure there are no hidden extras like soil removal. Suggestion: Ask how long the job will last.
Assess how long the company has been laying paving solutions.
Ask for some recent references of completed patio installation and read their reviews that are online. A reputable contractor will be enthusiastic about showing off recent work. Expect to see photos and details of recent, similar function which you may visit for a reference.
Ask questions like if the cost of a dumpster and jointing sand is included?
Check whether the contractor has the proper liability insurance.
Ask for a final written quote from your favorite contractor.
A reputable patio installer will not cut corners but work to the highest standard to build a patio that’s beautiful and will stay that way for years to come. A true professional will have no problem guaranteeing their work.
Starting with basic research and asking the correct questions will help ensure that you opt for a trustworthy and reliable contractor.
Anyone with a pad and pencil can design a patio-remember building the appropriate foundation, drainage and beautifully laying paving products is a skill and an art. A professional patio installer in can recommend colors, complementary products, suitable laying patterns and a lot more, so it’s well worth investing in a reputable one – remember to ask to see their portfolios. The master terrace builder will subsequently enhance their customer’s visions as they design their patio which matches their customer’s desires.
The Magna Carta, or Great Charter, is a charter drawn by English noblemen guaranteeing certain English rights and defining English civil and political liberties. It had been signed by seal of King John of England on June 15, 1215 in an effort to guarantee the continuing loyalty of the nobility. While Pope Innocent III nullified the arrangement 10 months later, the record has been reissued with alterations in 1216, 1217 and 1225. In 1297, Edward I entered the Magna Carta to the statues of this realm, which makes it the first entry on the statute books. While the Magna Carta was originally supposed to protect only the rights of noblemen, it was finally extended to commoners and served as the basis for English Common Law.
The Magna Carta included 63 exemptions which served to cover the main problems affecting England during the reign of King John including inheritance; debts and the payment after departure; the administration of justice; the levying of taxes; woods, riverbanks and river weirs; and freedom of commerce and travel amongst others. While the Magna Carta wasn’t originally numbered or split into separate clauses, a numbering system was supplied by Sir William Blackstone, in 1759 in a printed edition of the 1215 version of the Magna Carta.
The statute which had remained dormant for several years was revived by Sir Edward Coke in the seventeenth century. Coke touted the Magna Carta as authority for challenging the Stuart kings’ claims of royal prerogative and he translated the Magna Carta as an affirmation of the principles of human liberties and as a statement of English rights held since antiquity. The importance that Sir Edward Coke credited to the Magna Carta was reflected in the legislation of the colonies and his interpretation resulted in the claim of the inviolability of a person’s right to due process of law.
Englishmen who came to the American colonies believed they were entitled to the rights of Englishmen embodied in the Magna Carta and as defined in the English Common Law, and it was upon this frame that the colonists started to construct the laws of the land and maintain their liberty in the English Crown.
When framing their State Constitutions, nearly all the original colonies comprised a statement of their basic rights and liberties of man. While the Constitution of 1789 embodied various declarations of the basic rights of men, it didn’t include a formal Bill of Rights, like that included in the State Constitutions. Intense debate over the need for a declarative statement outlining the rights of taxpayers ensued. Consequently, Articles three through twelve, known as the Bill of Rights, became the first ten amendments to the Constitution of America.
The Bill of Rights, passed in 1789, and put in effect in 1791, secures the crucial rights and liberties of the individual citizen and restricts the government’s power in judicial proceeding. A number of these rights and liberties, in addition to the concept of representative government, the notion of a supreme law, and the notion of judicial review descend from an eighteenth-century comprehension of the Magna Carta.
The English concept of liberty of the church served as the foundation for our First Amendment guarantee of freedom of religion. The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States provides that”Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…” Likewise, Clause 1 of the Magna Carta provides”The English Church shall be free and shall have her whole rights and her liberties inviolable…” Clauses 62 and 63, which were omitted in the subsequent reissues of the Magna Carta, also reaffirm the freedom of the Church.
The idea of due process was expanded to include the right to bear arms (Second Amendment) and not to be subject to cruel and unusual punishment (Eighth Amendment).
Clause 39 guarantees that the administration of justice shall be based on”the laws of this land.” While the idea of”law of the land” isn’t defined in the Magna Carta, it has over time come to mean the right to trial by a jury of one’s peers, the right to confront one’s accusers, and the right to appeal.
The term”due process of law” first substituted the stage”the law of the land” in 1354 in a statute restating the Magna Carta’s procedural claims. It’s this guarantee that’s embodied in the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.
Article 1, Section 9 of the Constitution also contains a similar provision. It should also be noted that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1868, also comprises a due process clause.
The Fourteenth Amendment granted citizenship to”all persons born or naturalized in the United States” and prohibit states from denying any individual”life, liberty or property, without due process of law” or denying”any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” The provisions of the Fifth Amendment were introduced as a check upon the national government while those enunciated in the Fourteenth Amendment were directed towards the respective states from the Union. Taken together, but both amendments ensure that the person’s right to life, liberty and property remain inviolate vis a vis both the state and national government.
The notion of making sure that the person’s right to life, liberty and property remained inviolate vis a vis government is further exemplified in the Ninth Amendment to the Constitution wherein it is stipulated that”the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” Clearly, the framers of the Constitution meant that the rights they held before the framing of this Constitution, such as those maintained in the Magna Carta, were not lost nor restricted by the Constitution.
As previously mentioned, Clause 39 of the Magna Carta contains the assurance that”no freeman shall be taken or imprisoned… except by the lawful judgment of his peers.” The intent at the time was to induce the king to relinquish judicial authority to peers of the person on trial. Thus, while the Magna Carta didn’t consider the prosecution system that we have in america, it did serve as its inspiration. The colonists viewed the right to a jury trial because of an important liberty and a fundamental safeguard of liberty from arbitrary government. Hence the notion espoused in Clause 39 that”no freeman shall be taken or imprisoned… except by the lawful judgment of his peers” was integrated in the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Thus, like Clause 39, the Sixth Amendment guarantees a trial by a jury comprised of fellow citizens.
This idea of swift justice can be reflected in the Sixth Amendment from the assurance that”the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial.”
While the Sixth Amendment secured a right to a jury trial in criminal cases, it didn’t apply to civil cases. The Seventh Amendment, however, was made to ensure a jury trial in civil cases.
The rights sought by the barons in 1215, as described in the Magna Carta, not only found their way to the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights, but these crucial rights may also be found in the jury instructions issued by Judge to jury in america. That is, these rights are seen in the conditions presumption of innocence and burden of proof.
Clause 38 of the Magna Carta, afterwards re-numbered 29, provides that”No bailiff, for the future, will put any man to his law, upon his own simple affirmation, without credible witnesses created for the purpose.” Clause 38’s requirement that no man be put to trial without witnesses found its way to the Sixth Amendment from the assurance that”the accused shall enjoy the right… to be confronted with the witnesses against him.” In our judicial system, however, it is for the jury to determine the credibility of a witness.
During the reign of King John, there existed a concern regarding the seriousness of the punishment to be rendered. Thus Clause 20 of the Magna Carta was written to make sure that”A free-man shall not be fined for a small offence, but only based on the degree of the offence; and also to get a excellent delinquency, according to the size of the delinquency, saving his contentment… and none of the aforesaid fines shall be assessed, but by the oath of honest men of the vicinage.” To make certain that punishments weren’t overly excessive, Clause 20 mandated the punishment be consistent with the gravity of the crime. The same principle is expressed in our Eighth Amendment from the assurance that”Excessive bail shall not be required nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.”
The longest clause of the Magna Carta, Clause 61, called the security clause, was the most critical clause affecting King John in 1215. Clause 61 provided that a committee of 25 barons could meet anytime and overrule the will of the King, by force if necessary, if he defied the terms of this Charter, and they could grab his possessions and castles. As this was the first time that such a practice was forced upon a ruling monarch, Clause 61 was a severe obstacle to King John’s authority. Unsurprisingly, Clause 61 was omitted from all later reissues of the Magna Carta.
Clause 61 provides in part that”… because we have given all these things… we being desirous that these things should have entire and unshaken stability for , give and grant to them the security underwritten; namely the Barons may select twenty-five Barons of the kingdom, whom they please, who will with their whole power, observe, keep, and cause to be observed, the peace and liberties which we have given to them, and have confirmed by this our present charter… And if we will not have redresses… the twenty-five Barons… shall distress… us… from the taking of our castles, lands, and possessions…”
Throughout the time of the Tudors, the Magna Carta served as a foundation for establishing the first Parliament to help in enforcing the rights claimed by law. Afterwards, in Elizabethan times, the Magna Carta was utilized to establish the antiquity of Parliament.
The principal importance of Clause 61 is that it laid the framework for the simple form of government in both England and in the USA. Subsequently, the English governmental system of Monarch, Commons, and Lords provided the legal basis for our system of two houses of Congress and the Presidency. The framers of the Constitution were affected by the inherent relationship between the Monarch, Commons and Lords in the British governmental system and it’s from this system that the legal basis for both houses of Congress and the Presidency, in addition to the notion of checks and balances, was created. The legislative, judicial and executive branches of the government, together with the system of checks and balances, are based in the first few articles of this Constitution.
For the framers of the Constitution, the checks and balances that functioned between the 3 branches of government were a way to protect against any single branch from overreaching and exceeding its powers. Therefore, the Constitution and the Magna Carta were ready with the same intent in mind. Both files limit government by requiring entry to the law and by requiring recognition of the rights of taxpayers.
Therefore, the Tenth Amendment makes it clear that our national government possesses only those powers granted to it by the Constitution. The states, however, have all powers that the Constitution neither delegates to our national government nor prohibits the states from working; said otherwise, all powers not explicitly delegated to the national government nor denied to the states, remain with the states or the public.
Thought of a Supreme Law
The Magna Carta has also been credited with providing the foundation for the notion of a higher law. In this regard, it’s regarded as a superior law such that even kings must be subject to the law, and any attempt to invalidate it does not need to be respected. The concept that the Magna Carta provided the foundation for the notion of a higher law is embedded in Article VI, Paragraph 2 of the United States Constitution. Hence the Supremacy Clause mandates that the Constitution together with all treaties and all federal laws made in pursuance of this Constitution represents the”supreme law of the land” from america. The Supremacy Clause further mandates that all judges in most countries are bound by this”supreme law of the land,” and that the state courts must refuse to uphold any state law that’s contrary to the”supreme law of the land.”
Clauses 39 and 40, discussed above, also act as a foundation for the idea of judicial review. It’s through judicial review which our courts interpret the meaning and intent of legislation.